2019.7.6 发布在 世界看中国 栏目

Quora:80年代GDP还是相当的,为何中国GDP突然是印度的5倍了? 世界看中国-第1张

Why is China’s GDP 5 times that of India?Is it because India is a democracy?
Shankara Narayanan Sethuraman

When we look at the list for GDP estimated based on PPP,the order is China->EU->USA->India.This is a much fairer estimate as it corrects for local economic realities.There are many amenities that are cheaper in India like food and medicine than in the USA and the EU.The average Indian’s life is easier to understand only when the PPP estimate is used.

If we look at the GDP figures till the 1980s,India and China were pretty much on the same boat.The divergence occurred in 1991.So what is special about that year.Well,any lame Indian would reply:1991 Indian economic crisis.Our economy collapsed in 1991.We had to rebuild from scratch in 1991 and open up our markets and handle the pressures that resulted from that.That and continuous political instability for most of the 90s the gap kept widening.
While 99-04 saw stability and growth,the govt.that came in 04 was a quagmire of it’s ownkind.By 2012,they squandered all the gains made till 07 meaning that in 2014,China’s GDP was over twice ours.That’s hard to catch up to though we are on it full throttle from 2014.
Let’s see where we are in 2024.

Ramkumar Natarajan,Author of Books on Caste,History and Harappa Civilization.

China has become the world’s second largest economy,with Japan surrendering its 42-year-olc ranking after its economy shrank in the final months of 2010.China has claimed since as early as 2008 that it was imminently poised to become,the world’s second-largest economy.
China’s GDP data is haunted by controversy,with widespread doubts about its accuracy.Neither does India’s.With the introduction of a new formula to compute GDP,India’s GDP growth rose to 7%from from around 5%.Fudging of data to attract investment seems common nowadays.China alone is not the culprit.Yet,the fact is China is now in a comfortable position with foreign reserves.The total sum of the reserves is regularly announced by thecentral bank.At the end of September 2015,the foreign-exchange reserves of China were US $3.51trillion,while,at the end of January 2016,they stood at US $ 3.23 trillion,whereas India’s reserve stands at US $ 0.42 trillion in 2017.

Before the Chinese government introduced several economic growth reforms in 1979, the average annual real GDP growth rate in China was estimated at 5.3%(from 1960-1978)according to the Congressional Research Service. In 2010 the annual growth rate stood at10.4%.
As of 2017, China’s nominal GDP by Expenditure approach is 82.7122 trillion Chinese Yuan or $12.84 trillion US dollars. China’s nominal GDP surpassed that of Italy in 2000, France in 2005, the United Kingdom in 2006 and that of Germany in 2007, before overtaking Japan in 2010, making China the world’s second largest economy after the United States. But adjusting for purchasing power parity(PPP), China become the world’s second largest economy as early as 1999 surpassing Japan, and has toppled America to become the biggest economy since 2014.
China has already lifted more than 500 million people out of poverty after three decades of economic reforms on the mainland as China’s poverty rate fell from 88 percent in 1981 to 6.5percent in 2012, as measured by the percentage of people living on the equivalent of US $1.90 or less per day in 2011 purchasing price parity terms. As of 2017, only 3.3% of Chinese population was BPL. Targeted poverty reduction programs, in place nationally since 1986, played an important role. The central government ruled in 2015 that rural residents with an annual income of less than 2,800 yuan(US $ 427) were living in absolute poverty. The previous criteria set in 2011 was 2,300 yuan. Even as basic poverty is eradicated, there will be relative poverty in different sections of society, which will need to be addressed by the Chinese authorities. But what they achieved so far is a miracle. As of 2013,21.92% of Indians live below the poverty line.


India accounted for the largest number of people living below international poverty line in2013,with 30 per cent of its population under the $1.90-a-day poverty measure,the World Bank said.India accounts for one in three of the poor population worldwide,the world body said in its inaugural edition of the report”Poverty and Shared Prosperity’,according to which extreme poverty worldwide continued to fall despite the global economy’s”under-performance.”India is by far the country with the largest number of people living under theinternational US $ 1.90-a-day poverty line,more than 2.5 times as many as the 86 million in Nigeria,which has the second-largest population of the poor worldwide.
The benefits of Chinas sustained economic growth have admirably trickled down.Accelerating industrialization and urbanization in a country of over one billion people has transformed a large number of the agricultural surplus labor in the countryside into urban employment in China.Between 1978 and 2015,the number of people in non-farm jobs as a percentage of total employment increased from 29%to 70%.This change also occurred in poor areas and to poor households.Yet the disparities between the rural and urban population do exist but not as alarming as is projected by some people.
There is nothing much to suspect China’s growth;it is as good as or as bad as India

NKr,PhD,MBA Operations Research

I am of Indian origin.
First,let me share my opinion on the GDP(fake or real)discussion.There are liberties taken by both countries in the calculation.There are multiple discussions about this in reasonable newspapers and forums.
However,any over visiting China and India can see vast differences in infrastructure,enterprises ecso the ratio ie,4-50is probabyaccurate~
IMHO,there are 5 reasons for the difference

1. Chinese have always invested heavily on infrastructure. Chinese history is full of instances which talk about efforts to connect all parts of the kingdom. This makes their overall supply chain much more efficient. The New York times had a great article on this
2. Easier for foreign companies to invest. The willingness of foreign companies to manufacture here is significant when they see the infrastructure available in China. It is probably the best in the region with the possible exception of Korea. Japan is in another league..
3. Culturally, the Chinese are much less risk averse. There is obviously higher reward when higher risks are taken.
4. The work culture.A considerable portion of the Indian growth is due to the increased productivity of the white collar workers. In China, the blue collar workers have provided a huge boost as well.I don’t have the figures handy but the jump in productivity of Chinese blue collar workers is over 10x the productivity increase of Indian blue collar workers(Please correct this il incorrect;I could not find the source)
5. Finally, IMHO, the fact that India is a democracy does sometimes hamper development. In China, the government does not have to wait as long to push through a policy. In contrast, even the best intentioned and clearly optimal policy in India has to go through a bureaucratic process and get sign off(implicit or explicit) from regional and local powers. Like it or not, this is one of the trade offs of living in a democracy and having individual freedoms.
I am not smart enough to state that one is better than the other. They are different environments and I hope that I have highlighted some differences.


Vivek Nair,works at Cisco

There are lot of ways the GDP of a country can be increased.Take a lot of debt and then spendit all into constructions.This will show up as a huge GDP growth.Use that data and advertise your growth story.Open up your economy while you are at it.Money will start pouring in to earn profits of such a fast growth.

Peter Kvint,former Omnilog

A parliamentary democracy seems most democratic if there are 400 voters.
India’s problems are:
1.Oppression of women.
3.Language problems.India has many languages and the political language a European language.China also has several languages,but since the writing language is a sign system,this does not cause so many problems.
4.Infrastruktur.Kina is filled with roads and fast trains.
5.History.China has been a centralized state long before England.

Arpit Tambi,My 2 Cents

I believe it’s a combination of several factors-efficiency&willingness along with nepotism&equal opportunity.
Indians still have the slavery mindset beautifully nurtured by the elite to keep them so.In effect,this keeps people poor,helpless and dependent on their leaders and employers.

Niranjan Mehta,studied at Gemological Institute of America,Carlsbad,CA

It is Obvious that China has Massive consumer product manufacturing base.i assume almost 60-70%world consumer products are now being manufactured in china.No matter Rural china has worst development compare to India.But urban china is far far ahead of India.this is also thanks to USA.this thing did not happen over night but since 1972 onward thank to Richard Nixon and kissinger

Ravi Garkoti,studied at Birla Institute of Applied Sciences

India being a democracy is definitely a big reason.Every decision goes through multiple consultation and scrutiny process and you have to keep everybody in good humor for even a minor thing.This takes lot of time and efforts and hence delay.
Another reason is that India liberalized its economy quite late in comparison to China and hence the difference.

Vikas Sheke,SrMKT Man

China is better organised as a nation,it is seriously focused on key points to attract investments and opened the market.China has far less diversity or is suppressed which helps governance.Chinese officials do not compromise in infrastructure,investment facilities,instead operate in top priority but at cost of human rights,world is aware of chinees poverty and plight of workers working in extremely hazardous conditions.but China is now part of developed world.
India is extremely diverse,a peoples democracy which is basic hurdle is setting basicinfrastructure.People revolt against any big project that can affect there livelihood overlooking greater good of entire nation,political parties too take the advantage of the sam Govt has to spend enormous time and money in building infrastructure in India.
India need not follow 1 to 1 Chinese model,India is also positively growing and will grow,梅India need not even compete with china but should cooperate with China on trade,both India and china are equal in terms of size,population,history,culture and are neighbours too.
India too has some leverage than china,in IT,auto sector,agriculture,space science,medicine,engineering.Heavy industries are equally good as Chinese

Subhash Mathur,Free thinker.Former civil servant.Sportsperson

That’s because India has open policies openly arrived at.
Yet India needs to improve it’s productivity and catch up with China within the democratic set And we are trying to do just that.Wait for a few years more

Robbie Jena,Industrial Ecosystems and Strategy Architect

Why is China’s GDP 5times that of India?Is it because India is a democracy?
Because,China got the Engineering Data.Indians did not and stayed with Economic Data-you know,those Economist…
EDIT:India went to sleep..China has about 1450 GW Power while India has about 350 GW of Power.It has nothing to do with Democracy..USA pushed to both..

Pavel Astakhov,studied Computer Networking&Financial Management(2003)

The United States has invested trillions of dollars in China and an annual trade imbalance of about a trillion dollars in favor of China.
So it is not difficult for China to be the largest economy in the world.
To India West was not given no technology,no production,no money.India itself can both exist.

Atul Chaudhary,Civil Services Aspirant

absolutely not,USA is the a democratic country and world’s biggest economy but it’s may be partially true because in china there is no opponent against the Chinese communist government hence the chinese gov takes dicisions for the development in future whereas in india gov takes decision keeping next election in his mind.

Aurobindo Ghosh

Indians are lazy know-it-alls and Chinese are hardworkers.That’s why India runs to daddy,USA and Israel,for every issue with China.

Rajkumar Ukkuturi,studied Engineering

It is one of the reason for this but not the main reason.
Democracy is not a great option when there are lot of people who suffer from religion facts and illiteracy.

Arun Bhatia,studied at Univ of MD

I am originally from India.I went to China 2015 in a guided tour.I still have great memories of the beautiful Chinese people,their cities,towns and wonderful people.
Why are you trying to break that beautiful image?Go sleep!

Naby Souleymane Bangoura

Yes it’s because India is a democracy so it takes longer for laws and bills to go into effect.
Also China had a head start on India by 15-18 years