中国限制“稀土”出口,美国网友慌了:最好能找到替代品啊

2019.5.30 发布在 世界看中国 栏目

How a Chinese Restriction on’Rare Earths’Could Threaten Apple
中国限制“稀土”出口将如何威胁苹果

中国限制“稀土”出口,美国网友慌了:最好能找到替代品啊 世界看中国-第1张

As trade tensions persist,a potential weapon in China’s arsenal has emerged:Access to rare earth metals,a critical component of many technology products.~
随着贸易紧张局势的持续,中国又祭出大招:严控稀土金属。稀土是许多高科技产品的重要组件。
China is the primary source of rare earths for manufacturers around the world.And this week,speculation emerged in the Chinese press that,at the very least,the notion of slapping restrictions on rare earth exports is under evaluation by Chinese authorities should U.S.-China relations deteriorate further.Undesirable ripple effects for other trading partners are a likely disincentive from doing so–but still,restrictions on rare earth exports could be bad news for Apple(AAPL-Get Report)and other U.S.firms,such as automakers and other manufacturers,that use the metals in their products.
对全球制造商而言,中国是主要的稀土来源国。本周,中国媒体纷纷猜测,若中美关系进一步恶化,中国将考虑限制稀土的出口。对于其他贸易伙伴来说,不良的连锁反应可能会抑制稀土出口,但对苹果和其他美国公司(如汽车制造商和其他制造商)来说,限制稀土出口可能会是一则坏消息,因为它们的产品中需要这种金属。

中国限制“稀土”出口,美国网友慌了:最好能找到替代品啊 世界看中国-第2张
Apple shares closed down.38%on the Nasdag Friday to $178.97.They are up 15.7%so far this year.
苹果股价上周五在纳斯达克收于178.97美元,跌幅0.38%。今年迄今为止,该公司股票价格已上涨15.7%。
What are Rare Earths?
稀土是什么?

Rare earths are a category of 17 elements found in the earth’s crust,which have a unique set of properties that can make products more durable and efficient.That has made them critical ingredients in a wide range of modern technologies–electronic devices,batteries,lighting equipment,lasers,and much more.As just one example,an iPhone contains several components that use rare earths:Cameras,speakers,taptic engines,and receivers.
稀土是地壳中发现的17种元素中的一种,它们具有独特的属性,可以使产品更耐用、更高效。这使得它们成为现代科技产品的重要组成部分——电子设备、电池、照明设备、激光等等。举个例子,iPhone就包含了几个使用稀土的组件:相机、扬声器、触觉引擎和接收器。
China’s Rare Earth Leverage
中国对稀土的影响力
China is the world’s leading supplier of rare earths,accounting for 95%of the world output of rare earth minerals worldwide according to the U.S.Geological Survey.Adamas Intelligence,a research firm that tracks metals and minerals,noted in a report that Chinese exports of rare earths increased by 91.7%between 2014 and 2018.Likewise,demand for rare earths is alsoincreasing alongside rising demand for electric car batteries,according to the minerals consultancy Roskill.
美国地质调查局的数据显示,中国是全球最大的稀土供应国,占全球稀土矿物总产量的95%。长期跟踪研究金属和矿产的研究公司Adamas Intelligence在一份报告中指出,2014年至2018年间,中国稀士出口增长了91.7%。同样,矿产咨询公司Roskil表示,随着电动汽车电池需求的增长,对稀土的需求也在持续增长。
Rare earths are mined in other parts of the world,but for a variety of reasons–including ample natural supply in China,production quotas imposed by the Chinese government over time,supply chain relationships and other factors–it’s wound up with a virtual monopoly on rare earth production.
稀土在世界其他国家也有开采,但由于各种各样的原因——包括中国拥有十分充足的自然供应、中国长期实行的生产配额、供应链关系以及其他因素——中国实际上垄断了稀土的生产。

How Much Does Apple Rely on Rare Earths?
苹果公司有多依赖稀土?
Apple uses rare earths in various products components–but unlike some other materials,rare earth are used in such small amounts that recycled forms aren’t widely available,Apple has said.That means they ultimately need to be mined.
苹果曾说,公司各种产品的零部件中都使用了稀土,但与其他一些材料不同的是,稀土的使用量非常小几乎不会回收利用。这意味着稀土需要进行开采来补充。
Apple has made some efforts in recent years to distance itself from mining–which,in addition to any potential trade war risks,is fraught with ethical and environmental problems.In an annual environmental impact report that Apple publishes,it reiterated a goal of ending its reliance on mining at some point,but as of right now,those efforts are largely limited to recycling and reuse of a limited set of materials,such as aluminum,cobalt and tin.
近年来,苹果一直在努力与采矿业划清界限。除了潜在的贸易战风险外,采矿业还存在道德和环境问题在苹果发布的一份年度环境影响报告中,该公司重申了将在未来某个时候结束对采矿的依赖,但就目前而言,这些努力基本上仅限于回收和再利用有限的几种材料,比如铝、钻和锡。
Apple has a disassembly robot that can recover components that contain rare earth metals–but cannot extract the minerals itself.The technology simply isn’t there yet,Apple wrote in its latest environmental report.It appears that for now,Apple is a long ways off from ending its dependence on fresh rare earth metals.
苹果推出了一款拆解机器人,可以回收含有稀土金属的部件,但无法自己提取这些矿物。苹果在其最新的环境报告中写道,这项技术还不成熟。目前看来,苹果距离结束对新鲜稀土金属的依赖似乎还有很长的路要走。

What Could a Restriction Mean for Apple?
限制对苹果意味着什么?
Right now,it’s difficult to put a fine point on what the exact consequences would be for Apple should China enforce restrictions on rare earth exports.But given Apple’s highly complex supply chain entanglements in China,it’s probable that Apple investors would feel some pain even if the precise financial implications aren’t fuly understood.
目前,如果中国对稀土出口实施限制,苹果将面临什么样的确切后果还很难说。但考虑到苹果在中国高度复杂的供应链纠葛,即使苹果的财务不会受到明确的影响,苹果投资者也很可能也会感到痛苦。
Throughout late 2018 and into the first quarter,trade tensions weren’t kind to Apple’s stock,with shares plummeting close to 40%between early October 2018 and the beginning of this year.During that time,the deteriorating trade relationship between the U.S.and China manifested in at least two ways:One,through uncertainty around whether tariffs would be imposed on Apple products specifically,or lead to new costs in its supply chain;and secondly,a negative impact on Chinese spending that hurt iPhone sales.Should rare earths become a new casualty of the trade war,investors in Apple and other U.S.tech firms may need to grapple with fresh anxieties.
贸易紧张局势对苹果的股价不利,从2018年未到今年第一季度,苹果股价暴跌了近40%。在此期间,美国和中国之间不断恶化的贸易关系至少表现在两个方面:一是围绕是否会对苹果产品特别征收关税的不确定性,可能导致其供应链成本升高;其次,对中国消费的负面影响影响了iPhone的销售。如果稀土成为贸易战的新受害者,苹果和其他美国科技公司的投资者可能需要应对新的焦虑。
With Apple planning a new line of iPhones for a fall release,any threat of disruption to its production process could be particularly high risk,Goldman Sachs analysts suggested in a note this week.
高盛分析师在本周的一份报告中表示,由于苹果计划在秋季发布新款iphone,其生产过程受到的任何干扰威胁都可能带来极高的风险。

“We believe Apple is near its annual rapid ramp of new iPhone production to prepare for new device launches in the fall so even a short term action affecting production could have longer term consequences for the company,”the analysts wrote.
分析师写道:“我们认为,苹果新iPhone正快马加鞭地生产,为秋季新设备的发布做准备,因此,即便是影响产量的短期行动,也可能对公司产生长期影响。”

美国雅虎读者评论:
scritchy5 days ago

It isn’t just Apple.Rare earth metals are used heavily in aerospace and defense.Having China as the primary supplier of them was identified as an issue ages ago.
不仅仅是苹果手机。稀士金属被广泛用于航空航天和国防。中国作为主要供应国,多年前就已经是个问题了。

Anonymous

The world will be learning a hard lesson on relying on a single source supply chain they can’t control.
依赖于他们无法控制的单一来源供应链,世界将得到惨痛的教训。

Linda

Looks like we better find alternatives then.
看来我们最好能找到替代品。

cmnsns

through there are other countries that mine”rare earth”minerals it’s the refining process that becomes the problem since it is not eco friendly..…the U.S.sends what raw material is mined here to china to be processed because of that..so..…it’s not necessarily that china will stopshipment/sales of minerals they mine,but it would be the processing of the minerals for other countries that they can halt and force those countries to pollute themselves in order to get necessary minerals..…so its pretty much an advantage to china..
通过其他国家开采“稀土”矿物,提炼过程会是个问题,因为它不环保。因为这个原因,美国把自己开采原材料运到中国加工。所以.…中国并不一定会停止对他们开采的矿产的运输/销售,而是会停止为其他国家加工矿产,迫使这些国家污染自己的国土,以获得必要的矿产…….所以这对中国来说是一个很大的优势…

Chuck

It is time to review the national security implication of rare earth是时候重新审视稀土对国家安全的影响了

webzeppelin

Rare Earth?I saw them back in 73 at the Arie Crown Theater in Chicago.Awesome-It was the first concert I ever went to as a kid.
珍惜地球吗?我73年在芝加哥阿里皇冠剧院观看过他们的表演。太棒了——这是我小时候听的第一场音乐会。

Jes5 days ago

Rare earths can be obtained via other sources other than China.
稀土可以通过中国以外的其他来源来获取

Moody

I am not surprised Chinese will ban rare earth export to US until Huawei issue is resolved.Trump has gone too far with Huawei.Chinese probably has no problem of US and other countries not using Huawei as 5G supplier,but banning Huawei of using Google Android and Windows is other matter.It is a malicious act to damage a major US tech competitor.It is time for Trump and China to sit down and works out a peaceful solution of how to INTEGRATE both countries in world economy!!
在华为问题得到解决之前,中国将禁止向美国出口稀土,对此我并不感到意外。特朗普对华为做得太过火了。中国人可能不会介意美国和其他国家拒绝把华为作为5G供应商,但禁止华为使用谷歌Android和Windows已经是另外一回事了。这是一种恶意行为,目的是损害美国主要的科技竞争对手。是时候让特朗普和中国坐下来,制定出一个和平解决方案,让两个国家互相合作了!

jeremy

For the Last time.Rare Earths are found at the end of the periodic table of elements.Most of these minerals are not”rare”.They are available in nature in abundance.Australia,NKorea,Russia,Afghanistan,Brazil,Canada,America all have them.Here is the issue.Industrialized nations have some”humanitarian mining laws”and equivalents to the EPA,which makes mining these minerals very expensive.Step 2,smelting them,or refining them is also costly with out sl ave labor of China,and NK,and Afghanistan.Here is the main flux point.If China withholds these earths,or restricted them,the price would raise drastically,therefore;other countries would jump up and down and the mining would begin!China has 80%market share,and is only defending NK due to their earths.If the mining starts,their market share drops like a rock in water.China will do anything to keep that market share.Why do you think Apple hasn’tbeen touched yet?
最后说一次。稀土拍在元素周期表的末尾。这些矿物大部分都不“稀有”。它们在自然界中大量存在。澳大利亚、朝鲜、俄罗斯、阿富汗、巴西、加拿大和美国都有。问题在于:工业化国家有一些“人道主义采矿法”以及环保保护局,使得这些矿物的开采成本非常昂贵。第二步,在没有中国、朝鲜和阿富汗的劳动力的情况下,治炼或精炼的成本也很高。因此,如果中国不开采或限制开采,稀土价格将大幅上涨;其他国家则会开始采矿!中国拥有80%的市场份额,如果其他国家开始采矿,他们的市场份额就会投石入水一般迅速下降。中国将尽一切努力保持这一市场份额。不然你以为苹果为什么还无动于衷?

Mike

China controls the majority of Rare Earth elements around the world with the only 2 large deposits that are known being untapped and would take several years to even get the process started and several more to get the facilities to process it.China could easily strangle the western world just because of rare earth elements.
中国控制着世界上绝大部分的稀土元素,目前已知还有两处大型矿床尚未开采,甚至需要数年时间才能启动这一过程,还要数年时间才能启动设备进行加工。单凭一个稀土,中国就能轻而易举地扼杀西方世界

Troll4 days ago

The rare earth facility in Mountain Pass California resumed operating in January of 2018.There isn’t going to be a problem even if things are going to be shifting.Fact is,they’ve already been shifting and this isn’t going to be an issue.
位于加州帕斯山的稀土工厂于2018年1月恢复运营。即使形势有变,也不会有什么问题。事实上,他们

Corey

Seeing how Apple pays no U.S.federal taxes what lose is this to me?
看吧,苹果公司都不用缴纳美国联邦税,这对我有什么损失呢?

Bill K

If China adopted US EPA rules it wouldn’t mine any rare earths at all.China doesn’t have moreor better ores than anyone else,just a willingness not to factor cleaning up after the mining operations into the price of the commodity.
如果中国采纳美国环保局的规定,就不会开采任何稀土。中国并没有比其他国家拥有更多或更好的矿石只是没有将采矿作业后的清理工作计入大宗商品价格。

Ock

Apple should invest in manufacturing its own rare earths.The US did it way before we dealt with the Chinese.It’s not rocket science.
苹果应该投资加工自己使用的稀土。在与中国打交道之前,美国就是这么做的。这又不是什么高尖端的火箭科学。
Maxcrusader
As soon as Trump heard of the rare earth threat,he immediately said that the restrictions on Huawei could be lifted under a trade deal.Thats what’s normally called,an ace card.Our tech companies could grind to a near halt till alternate supplies could be found.
特朗普一听到稀土威胁,就立即表示,根据贸易协议,对华为的限制可以取消。这就是通常人们所说的王牌。我们的科技公司可能会陷入停顿,直到找到替代供应。

None5 days ago

For all intents and purposes,Apple is a Chinese company.They were lost a long time ago.Their customers are cult-like,similar to leader-worship in China.
实际上,苹果已经是一家中国公司了。他们很久以前就迷失自我了。他们的顾客都盲目追捧苹果。

Adam

It won’t as rare earth is found everywhere.
不会的,稀土随处可见。

Syanis

China tightening its rare earths supply would be great.Thing is rare earths are not just available in China but China having no real enforced mining and environmental laws along with dirt cheap labor costs makes it a great place for*cheap*whatever it is.However cheap doesn’t mean anything if access is hindered or blocked in any way and the US has massive amounts of rare earths in the west without even taking to the oceans surrounding the US.China lockingrare earths down would spur US growth of its own rare earth mining and likely use national security on the matter which could also be used to limit the US from exporting said rare earths to other countries as well.This would have numerous negative effects against China as well as potentially bring high tech manufacturers to the US to have access to said rare earths.
中国收紧稀土供应将是一件好事。事实是,稀土不是中国独有的,中国没有真正执行的采矿和环保法律再加上极低的劳动力成本,让中国成为一个“廉价”的好地方。但如果稀土供应受到任何形式的阻碍或封锁,那么即使稀土价格低廉,也没有任何意义,美国在西方也拥有大量稀土资源。中国限制稀土出口将刺激美国自身稀土开采的增长,并限制美国向其他国家出口上述稀土。这将对中国产生诸多负面影响,并可能使美国的高科技制造商获得上述稀土资源。

Albert4 days ago

Chinese restriction on rare earths will threaten not only Apple but Intel,Google,ARM,Samsung,LG,GM,Ford,Toyota,etc,and basically any companies that make telecom and computer hardware and batteries(electric vehicles).You Americans better start digging.
中国对稀士的限制不仅会威胁苹果,还会威胁英特尔(Intel)、谷歌、ARM、三星(Samsung)、LG、通用汽车(GM)、福特(Ford)、丰田(Toyota)等公司,以及几乎所有生产电信、电脑硬件和电池(电动汽车)的公司。你们美国人最好开始自己挖稀土了。

zardeus

It’s about time Apple do something to help the US worker-all they’ve done is create jobs for China and stuff their pockets with cash.
苹果是时候做点什么来帮助美国工人了——他们所做的就是为中国创造就业机会,让他们的口袋里装满现金。

dobey

Facepalm,China is the primary producer because they can do it cheaper and with fewer environmental protections but not only do we have a lot of rare-earths in stockpile,we also have a tremendous amount sitting underground in the Western US.There are things to worry about in this trade war but this isn’t among them.
括脸无语,中国是主要的稀土生产国,这是因为他们可以用更低的成本和更差的环境保护手段来生产,但我们不仅有大量的稀土储备,我们在美国西部也有大量的地下资源。这场贸易战中我们有一些事情值得担忧,但稀土并不在其中。

nilo luis

Rare Earth metals are all around the world,the first major producer was in fact is the USA,it was closed because China produced the materials at cutthroat prices that US miners can’t compete.Even US processing of rare Earth minerals stopped and eventually bought by the Chinese including the technology in processing the products.Eventually technology was transferred to China and the US plant closed so now technology and raw materials supply is in China.Any if Chinese Government stops selling rare Earth minerals to US,they will find a way around it and they can restart mining their own source.
稀土金属遍布世界各地,第一个主要生产国其实是美国,美国暂停开采是因为中国以美国矿商无力竞争的低价生产原材料。甚至连美国的稀土加工也停业,最终包括加工稀土产品的技术都被中国人买下了。最终技术转移到中国,美国工厂关闭,所以现在技术和原材料供应都在中国。如果中国停止向美国出售稀土矿物,美国会找到解决问题的办法,重新开采自己的稀土资源。

nothing to sayyesterday

Rare earth metals are not extremely rare..…but the Chinese can refine them because the don’t worry about the associated pollution.If the need arose..the US could find a way to do it.
稀土金属并非极其稀有..…但是中国人能够提炼稀土是因为他们不担心由此产生的污染。如果形势需要…美国可以找到解决的办法。

Mel

Had they actually offered 25-50 dollars for every phone return they would have unlimited rare earth materials.As they would recoup what they used.Well not unlimited but a lot more.A single use phone is crazy.You should have to return your old phone just like a car battery for a core fee.
如果他们真的为每台手机提供25-50美元的退款,他们将拥有无限的稀土材料。因为他们会回收他们使用的。你应该像退还汽车电池一样退还你的旧手机。

WalterLeeyesterday

“Rare Earth”elements are not rare-China which was the cheapest source of*rare earth*raw ore is now capping the export of raw*Rare Earth*ore-but Apple products are so over priced that Apple can buy their raw*rare earth*ore elsewhere like in the USA or Peru and still keep the same prices and make a whooping abount of profit such that nobody would notice.
“稀土”元素并不罕见——中国便宜的稀土原矿石资源,现在限制了稀土的出口,但苹果产品本身定价过高,苹果可以在美国或其他地方,比如秘鲁购买自己的稀土矿,继续维持相同的价格,获取高额的利润根本没人会注意到。

Timothy3 days ago

More biased,shoddy reporting.The Mountain Pass mine in California has all the rare earth metals the US needs.And China has always restricted sales.The only reason there might be a shortage is because people in the US would rather pollute China than CA,ie,hypocrisy is the only problem here.
这种带偏见、粗制滥造的报道越来越多了。加州的帕斯山矿拥有美国所需的所有稀土金属。中国一直都在限制销售。供应短缺的唯一原因可能是,美国人宁愿污染中国,也不愿污染加州,也就是说,虚伪是唯一的问题。

John

Brazile and India combined have as much rare earth metals as China,and then you can add Russia and may others.There are sources.US has one mine and over time should restart copper mining and exploration to acquire independence like it has with oil now.
巴西和印度的稀土金属总量与中国相当,然后你还可以加上俄罗斯和其他国家。来源很多。美国有一座矿,随着时间的推移,应该会重启矿石开采和勘探,以获得资源独立,就像现在对石油那样。

Russell W H20 hours ago

THE SKY IS FALLING!THE SKY IS FALLING!I guess this journalist doesn’t realized that the U.S.has deposits of rare earth metals in Idaho.However,let’s try to use China’s supply first.What reporting!Not!
天要塌了!天要塌了!我想这位记者没有意识到美国爱达荷州就有稀土金属矿藏。不过,我们可以先试着使用中国的稀土供应。这是什么报告!差评!

Johnyesterday

Brazil and India have supplies equal to China,and a few other countries Russia and Austrailia and mining countries.US has one active mine but fact is rare earth metals are more common that their name implies.The US should subsidize some mines from a strategic standpoint but there are ways the US can also retaliate as well as Europe if there is a threat by China and there are other sources.Prices would rise and that would create more mining and supply although would take some time.China cut off Japan a number of years ago but that backfired.
巴西和印度的供应量与中国相当,另外还有俄罗斯和澳大利亚等几个国家。美国有一个活跃的稀土矿,但事实是,稀士金属比名字听起来要常见得多。从战略角度看,美国应该对一些煤矿进行补贴,但如果中国提出威胁,我们还有其他来源,美国也有办法像欧洲一样进行报复。稀土价格将上涨,这将刺激采矿供应,尽管这需要一段时间。中国几年前切断了对日本的供应,但事与愿违。

ych

China would not restrict rare earths trades.However,China would have the security of rare earths warranted for peace deployments.
中国不会限制稀土贸易的。不过中国为了国家和平将保障稀土安全。

Everett

We should tax all non-renewable resources,from fossil fuels to rare earth elements.Taxes on productive endeavors(working and investing)make the economy less efficient,but taxes on non-renewable resources actually make the economy MORE efficient.
我们应该对所有不可再生资源征税,从化石燃料到稀土元素。对生产活动(工作和投资)征税会降低经济效率,但对不可再生资源征税实际上会提高经济效率。

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